Unless you’ve been hiding under a bush, you’ll be very aware that it’s Veganuary; in other words, Vegan January! Eating a plant-based diet provides many health benefits but it is important to make sure you are getting everything you need.
Whether you’re going vegan for the month of January, are flexibly vegan or have always eaten that way, then now is a great time to ensure your diet is delivering all the essential nutrients.
Clinical nutritionist Suzie Sawyer looks at how to get your vegan diet in great shape.
Protein is king
Protein is an essential macro nutrient. It’s needed for maintaining healthy bones, joint and muscles, and plays a key role in the immune system. It is also essential for hormone production. Without enough protein, the body literally starts to break down.
Protein from animal sources contains all the essential amino acids the body can’t make. Some vegetable sources don’t contain all these amino acids, or they’re low in some of them. However, the great news is that soy foods, such as tofu and tempeh, and quinoa are complete protein sources. Rice and beans can also be combined to deliver the full quota. The body doesn’t need to have all nine essential aminos at every meal but there should be an overall balance ideally.
Make sure you’re eating some protein at every meal – there are loads of great choices. Any type of bean, quinoa, rice, buckwheat, lentils, chickpeas, nuts, soy, hemp and chia seeds are all healthy, low fat options.Don’t over promise yourself
Some fats are essential
Whilst it’s important not to overdo foods high in saturated fats such as butter and meat (good to remember if you’re a ‘flexi’ vegan), the body needs the essential omega-3s and 6s. These are essential for many body functions including a healthy heart, skin, brain, muscles, eyes and hormones. Omega 6 fats are often easier to obtain because they’re found in a variety of vegetable oils (including soy), nuts and seeds.
However, it’s the omega-3s that are frequently deficient in so many western diets, partly because the best source is from oily fish which many people don’t like and obviously vegans don’t eat. However, walnuts, chia seeds, flaxseeds and pumpkin seeds are all good sources of omega-3s so make sure they’re on the menu every day in some way.
Supplement with vitamin B12
This vitamin is the only one that can’t be found in any vegetable sources so ideally needs to be supplemented if you’re vegan. Many soy products and cereals are fortified with vitamin B12 so do keep a watchful eye on labels.
Vitamin B12 is essential for preventing pernicious anaemia which isn’t dissimilar to iron-deficient anaemia. The bottom line is that if you’re deficient in B12, energy levels will be noticeably low, and your nervous system and brain won’t function at their best.
Keep a watch on iron intake
Unlike vitamin B12, iron is found in many vegetable sources including nuts, beans, green leafy vegetables, and fortified grain products. Whilst the most usable source of iron is from meat, vegetable sources are much better absorbed when eaten alongside some vitamin C. For example, half a glass of orange juice with your morning fortified cereal is a great way of boosting iron levels.
The only way of knowing for sure if iron levels are low is to get the doctor to perform a serum ferritin blood test. It’s always worth having this checked if you’re feeling unusually tired or you find you’re out of breath even doing light exercise. Otherwise, include the above vegan sources of iron as much as possible in your diet.
Load up on orange and red vegetables
Why? Because these colourful fruits and vegetables have the highest amounts of beta-carotene which is turned into immune-boosting vitamin A as needed by the body. Just like vitamin B12, vitamin A is only found in animal sources. However, this doesn’t generally present any problems because the body produces what it needs if enough beta-carotene is being consumed.
Many colourful fruits and vegetables contain pro-vitamin A beta carotene. However, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, butternut squash, mango, apricots and carrots are the best choices.
There are many health benefits to following a vegan diet. You can make it even healthier by taking care of these watchpoints.
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