Immunity-boosting nutrition tips this spring

Close up of woman with her arms stretched out in sunshine wearing sunglasses

With spring on the way we naturally want to get out and about and certainly don’t want to be dragged down by colds or infections that prevent us from enjoying life to the full. A change in season can often put the body under more stress, so what are the best ways to get your immune system in good shape this spring time?

Clinical Nutritionist, Suzie Sawyer, shares FIVE of her top immune-boosting foods!

SMALLER--4 Suzie Blog pic

PURPLE SPROUTING BROCCOLI

Purple sprouting broccoli has been cultivated since the 18th century but has only risen to prominence in the UK in the last 30 years or so. All green leafy vegetables provide great health benefits but the purple colour means that it also contains higher levels of polyphenols – plant compounds, rich in antioxidants which provide wonderful support for the immune system. Additionally, purple sprouting broccoli contains vitamins A and C, together with a variety of carotenoids – all key for immunity.

Not sure what to do with it? It is great stir-fried with pine nuts, sesame oil and seeds, sweet chilli sauce or just plain steamed as an accompaniment to meat or fish. Grab it now whilst it’s in season – this means it is packed with the highest nutrient content – perfect for giving your immune system a boost.

CRAB

You might not necessarily associate crab with immunity but it’s high in the mineral selenium which is needed to produce our key antioxidant enzyme in the body called glutathione peroxidase. This in turn, helps protect us from infections and disease.

A close up of a bowl of crab salad

The easiest way to enjoy crab is in a salad using the prepared crab meat from the fish counter or from your fishmonger. If you mix the crab meat with a dash of tabasco sauce, lime juice, capers, some black pepper and chopped coriander leaves, you can pair it with some mixed leaves for a delicious spring time salad.

SPINACH

A wonderfully versatile vegetable that will help to keep you bug-free through spring! It can be cooked in a variety of ways, added to dishes or it may be used in salads, raw. In fact it mixes really well with bacon in a salad.

Spinach is in season right now so will be a lovely dark green colour in the shops or markets. It’s great for the immune system because it contains high levels of vitamins A and C. Spinach is probably best known for its high iron content (Popeye knew best!) which helps to give energy levels a great boost; very helpful if you’re wanting some spring time fun.

Close up of Spinach salad with peas, asparagus and radish

There’s so many ways to use spinach; added to soups, casseroles or pasta, lightly steamed and served with a knob of butter, stir-fried with garlic and butter, sautéed with a little olive oil and parmesan, or in a salad with some grilled haloumi and fresh mint.  Why not create a delicious greens salad with spinach, peas and asparagus. Enjoy!

ACAI BERRIES

All berries are great for the immune system but acai are actually some of the best. This is because acai berries have one of the highest antioxidant ratings of any food and they’re rich in fibre too. This means they’re great for the immune system, plus the skin and heart.

Acai berries in a bowl and a spoon of acai berry powder

One of the most delicious recipes for acai berries is an acai berry bowl. You can either use them as a freeze-dried powder or try frozen berries whizzed up with banana, avocado, other berry fruits, and coconut water with a crunchy topping of nuts and seeds to boost your omega-3s.

TEA

It doesn’t matter what colour – black, green or white – all types are rich in immune-boosting polyphenols. However, green tea actually has the highest amount of antioxidants. This is because methods of tea production vary from tea type. For example, green tea leaves are picked and then left out to dry (generally in the sunlight) before being put into hot roasting tins. After being rolled, they are then further heat treated which produces green, slightly withered tea leaves. Green tea is higher in antioxidants because the leaves are not left in the atmosphere to oxidise before they’re harvested.

A glass tea cup of green tea

Green tea is also great for the immune system as it helps to feed the beneficial bacteria in the gut. Strange as it may seem, balanced gut bacteria is absolutely essential for good immunity. However, it’s best to drink any type of tea in-between meals as the tannin content tends to deplete certain trace minerals in our food.

So keep well this spring and enjoy spending more time outdoors as the warm weather arrives.

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Eat your way to better sleep

It’s thought that as many as one in three people in the UK suffer from poor sleep1. This is categorised as a number of things including not being able to get off to sleep, waking up too early, waking for long periods in the night and not feeling refreshed in the morning after a night’s sleep.

There can be many reasons for having poor sleep. However, the good news is that eating certain foods may help to alleviate the problem.

Clinical Nutritionist, Suzie Sawyer, shares her five top tips to keep you slumbering all night long!

SMALLER--4 Suzie Blog pic

DE-STRESS FOR BETTER SLEEP

Easier said than done of course! We have busy and stressful lives. However, chronic stress can lead to a disordered sleep pattern. Plus, the more stressed you are, the more B vitamins the body will naturally burn. So, if you’re lacking in B vitamins, it’s more likely that you’ll suffer from sleep problems.

Therefore, during the day, try to include foods rich in the B’s; whole grains, oily fish, eggs, brown rice, all types of beans, sunflower seeds and nuts. Having plenty of B vitamins in your diet will really help you to cope better with anxiety and stress – both very real barriers to getting a peaceful night’s sleep.

GET YOUR OMEGA FATS

Your nerve cells need essential fats to function correctly. If you have good nerve function, this will help you to overcome stress and anxiety, which, in turn will lead to a better nights’ sleep.

These omega 3 fats can’t be made in the body, therefore they have to be taken in the diet from oily fish such as salmon, sardines, mackerel and tuna. If you’re vegetarian, then nuts and flaxseeds, which can easily be added to cereals, porridge and salads, are rich in omega-3s.

HAVE A MILKY DRINK

Any food or drink that promotes the release of tryptophan, an amino acid that produces melatonin which is our sleep hormone, is going to be really helpful. Therefore, in the evening, plan to eat a small snack before bedtime of either a banana, some dates, a milky drink, nut butters with oatcakes, or some natural yoghurt.

Paradoxically, certain foods promote the release of adrenalin which is going to keep you awake. Foods best avoided in the evening are bacon, cheese, aubergine, ham, potatoes, sauerkraut, sugar, sausages and spinach.

HERBAL TEAS

There are a number of calming herbs which can be drunk as a tea. For example, camomile tea is known to be very relaxing because it contains a particular flavonoid known as chrysin. You certainly need to be avoiding caffeinated drinks late at night, and ideally at least four to six hours before bedtime. This includes caffeinated tea, coffee, chocolate and fizzy drinks. Do remember as well that even decaffeinated tea and coffee will still contain a small amount.

Green tea, however, contains theanine – an amino acid which helps promote the release of something called GABA – which is one of the calming neurotransmitters in the brain. It makes sense, therefore, to have a relaxing tea about an hour before bedtime for a more peaceful night.

DRINK SOME TART CHERRY JUICE

This may sound a strange suggestion, but there has been some limited research to suggest that tart cherry juice from Montmorency cherries may help people sleep. This is because these special cherries naturally contain some melatonin, our sleep hormone. They also seem to keep more tryptophan, which contributes to the production of our sleep hormone, in the body.

Research has only been carried out on small groups of people2 but improvements were found in sleep time by drinking around 200 ml of tart cherry juice once a day for two weeks. Although, there’s no real robust research, it’s certainly worth considering if you’re struggling to sleep. Cherries also provide many other health benefits, particularly because they contain antioxidants which help prevent the ageing process.

It is no fun not being able to sleep, so hopefully these suggestion will really help. Sweet dreams!

 

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Spring nutrition for an energy boost this season

With the onset of spring and the lighter evenings, we naturally feel more energised and want totally embrace life. However, the real key to feeling revitalised is eating the right foods. It is always best to eat foods that are in season to gain maximum nutritional benefits, and springtime presents foods which are great for energy.

Clinical Nutritionist, Suzie Sawyer, shares her five best meals to put a zing in your step!

SMALLER--4 Suzie Blog pic

GET BREAKFAST UNDERWAY

You’ll definitely struggle with energy throughout the day if you don’t start it off right. This means always eating breakfast. Many people have little appetite in the morning, in which case eating some natural yoghurt and blueberries might be the best option for you.

However, as spinach is a great spring food and is packed with energising iron, an often-depleted trace mineral in the diet, it makes a great breakfast choice. How about a mushroom and spinach omelette?

Spinach omelette in pan on breakfast table

Eggs are one of the best sources of protein you can find, so blood sugar levels will stay balanced throughout the day, and mushrooms contain B vitamins which are real energy-boosters. This breakfast is really going to keep you fully charged throughout the day.

LUNCH-TIME ENERGISERS

Energy levels often slump mid-afternoon, particularly if work is office-based, hence the need for a protein-based lunch. Salmon is at its best right now and is packed with the essential omega-3 fats, needed to keep the metabolism fired up. Why not throw together a delicious salmon and new potato salad using wonderfully tasty Jersey royals? Plus, add some lightly boiled or steamed asparagus to your salad leaves; asparagus is in season and contains lots of energising folate. Folate or folic acid, known as vitamin B9, is also essential for red blood cell production.

Salmon fillet and asparagus on a white plate

Eating sandwiches for lunch can become a bit dull and it may encourage that afternoon dip in energy. Chicken is in season now (as we’ll see below), and it’s great for lunch in a sustaining quinoa, chicken and avocado salad. The whole recipe is loaded with the energising B-vitamins and avocado provides some good fats which are great for the skin and heart.

Tub of quinoa salad on a desk with keyboard and mouse in background

Boil the quinoa with some chicken stock and when cool, mix with some cooked chicken, mashed avocado, baby spinach (another spring favourite!), some cherry tomatoes, lemon juice, crushed garlic and a little olive oil. You’ll fly through the rest of the day and because it’s gluten-free you won’t feel bloated later on.

DELICIOUS DINNERS

No spring recipe suggestions would be complete without including lamb. The UK is well-known for its deliciously sweet and tender spring lamb. Plus it’s certainly going to contribute to those energy levels; it’s rich in vitamins B3, B6 and B12 and lamb is a great source of zinc which helps support the immune system.

Roast leg of lamb with trimmings

Greek-style spring lamb is wonderful and is great for entertaining over the Easter period. And a leg of lamb is so easy to cook. Simply mix up some crushed garlic, oregano, olive oil, lemon, salt and pepper and rub all over the lamb. In order for the full flavour to penetrate, stab the raw meat whilst pouring over the herb mixture. Once the lamb is cooked to your liking, use the juices in the pan to mix with a can of tomatoes and some green or black olives for a delicious accompaniment.

Roast chicken leg with potatoes and vegetables

Chicken is also a great spring food. Indeed, the famous ‘spring chicken’ saying suggests that spring chickens are much softer than older ones who have had to endure the winter! Chicken is often a family staple and a great source of protein with a complete amino acid profile. Plus it’s packed with B vitamins, especially vitamin B5 which is needed for the body’s normal stress response. You can either use a whole chicken or chicken thighs which are generally much tastier than breast for an easy chicken casserole. Place in a pot with sliced carrots, new potatoes (Jersey royals of course), some chicken stock, mixed herbs and what else but spring onions!

So enjoy everything that the new season has to offer and here’s to an energetic spring!

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Kick off the year the right way with these top healthy diet tips

The New Year provides the perfect backdrop to make changes to your life and, most importantly, your diet. The good news is that even making small changes nutritionally can have a really big impact on your overall health.

Clinical Nutritionist, Suzie Sawyer, gives us her top tips on how to revamp your diet this year!

SMALLER--4 Suzie Blog pic

DRINK MORE WATER

Sometimes, the simplest changes can have the most impact. If you’re dehydrated (and a lot of us are), you’ll feel sluggish, your brain will be fuzzy, energy levels will be lowered and your skin may look tired and less luminous.

The body is around 75% water, therefore it makes sense to be well hydrated.  Optimal water intake is around 1 ½ – 2 litres daily which you can sip throughout the day; always keep a water bottle close at hand.

If you’re exercising, then you’ll need more.  The body is not ‘pure’ water which is why isotonic drinks, which are recommended during and after exercise, provide additional electrolytes and solutes which help re-hydrate the body more effectively.

We can often confuse hunger for thirst, so making sure you’re getting enough water is a daily essential and may prevent you from reaching for snacks you might not really need.

KEEP BLOOD SUGAR BALANCED

One of the most unpleasant aspects of adjusting your diet and eating less is the feeling of hunger and food cravings. This is because our blood sugar levels are imbalanced so it is important to sustain energy levels by eating the right foods even when you’re trying to eat less.

The trick here is to always eat protein at every meal.  For example, eggs for breakfast, some chicken or turkey with your lunch and some fish, for example, in the evenings.  There is a misconception that it is carbohydrates that fill you up; the reverse is actually true.  Protein provides feelings of fullness and helps to keep your blood sugar levels balanced, your energy levels sustained and those hunger pangs in check. Protein all the way!

FOOD IS NOT THE ENEMY

When we’re trying to make changes to our diet, whether it be for health reasons, to lose weight or just to ‘change things up a bit’, many of us seem it as too big a challenge.  But by changing your mind set and looking at food as one of life’s pleasures, you can have a much more harmonious relationship with your nutritional plan.

So, if you want to improve your diet, always make sure that you resolve to replace the foods you know you shouldn’t be eating but really enjoy (high fat, low nutritional value foods such as biscuits, cakes, sweets) with foods you enjoy.

Many people choose a new diet plan but really don’t like the foods they are being asked to eat and this is just not sustainable long term.  I often advise people to try removing dairy from their diet for health reasons, but I will always suggest alternatives to dairy that people will enjoy to fill the gap.  For example, replacing cow’s milk: many people find soya milk unpalatable but they like coconut or almond milk. Therefore by choosing an alternative they like, they don’t feel deprived about not having traditional cow’s milk in their diet.

So, you may need to avoid the cakes in the office, but you might have a bar of delicious raw chocolate in your drawer at work and can eat a piece as a sweet treat. It is not about having a life of denial, but finding healthy alternatives, and most importantly, enjoying the food you’re eating.

KEEP HEALTHY SNACKS ON HAND

We know that eating protein at every meal is going to help you to feel fuller for longer.  However, there are going to be times when you’re away from a kitchen and direct access to healthy food may be limited.  This is where problems can start and you may grab something unhealthy because you’re hungry!  However, it’s all about planning and this is where healthy snacks come in.

If you plan your week in advance – may be even write a menu – you’ll be much more likely to stay on track.  More importantly, you can ensure you have healthy, portable snacks on hand.  For example, protein bars containing natural ingredients, where possible. Oat cakes, pots of seeds, almonds or Brazils, fruit such as blueberries … all these are easy to keep in your bag or in your desk drawer.  It’s best not to go without food for longer than three or four hours, therefore healthy snacking is an essential part of any balanced diet.

So get the New Year off to a flying start nutritionally and the rest will follow!  Good luck!

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Banish the bloat for 2018: top digestion tips

For many of us, Christmas over-indulgence may have negatively impacted on our digestion leading to uncomfortable bloating. But with the Christmas festivities behind us, and a New Year on the horizon, what is the best way to prep your body so you can start the New Year energised and ready to go?

Clinical Nutritionist, Suzie Sawyer, shares her five top tips for beating the bloat this New Year!

SMALLER--4 Suzie Blog pic

THINK DANDELIONS

The humble dandelion plant delivers some wonderful health benefits; most importantly it is a natural liver cleanser and helps to detoxify the blood. Since the liver is crucial to digestive processes, if it’s working well then the digestive system will automatically run smoother.

Dandelions also aid digestion by encouraging the flow of bile which primarily breaks down fats, thereby reducing any likelihood of bloating. Dandelion can be drunk as a tea or coffee, both of which are readily available in health food stores.

DRINK LEMON WATER

Whilst talking about the liver, there’s no better way to start the day than with a glass of lemon water with ginger.

Lemon is a liver detoxifier and ginger feeds the friendly gut bacteria, which helps to reduce any bloating. Start with a large glass of warm water, add a couple of slices of fresh lemon and some crushed ginger. Apart from cleansing the liver, your skin will also glow after a week or so and your digestion will run a whole lot smoother!

FEED THE GUT BACTERIA

We have billions of friendly or good gut bacteria, living quite happily in the digestive tract. However, sugary foods, alcohol, stress, refined foods and caffeine all have an impact on how happy they are! Over-indulgence during the festive period will certainly have impacted on the natural balance in the gut, which can lead to tell-tale bloating and wind.

Natural live yoghurt provides good amounts of friendly bacteria. Whilst it’s great to include this regularly in the diet, your digestive tract will benefit hugely from taking a course of probiotics (readily available in health food stores) for at least a month, to get everything back on track. You may initially experience a little more bloating, which is normal, but it should settle quite quickly. The end results will be worth it!

INCLUDE ARTICHOKES

Globe artichokes may look slightly strange and can be a little fiddly to prepare, but they are packed full of digestive benefits. Artichokes have been used as a liver tonic for centuries because they contain two antioxidants, namely cynarin and silymarin. These help to cleanse and repair over-worked livers, which naturally improves digestion.

Moreover, cynarin is one of the active ingredients in globe artichokes that helps soothe digestion. Artichokes are also high in fibre which helps improve bowel movements and this in itself provides relief from bloating.

To prepare them, cut the body of the artichoke in half and remove the stem whilst pulling out the fibres. Snap the leaves from the edges and cut the remaining leaves away. Then you can slice the tip of the artichoke away, scrape out the hairy middle and lightly steam or gently roast the leaves in a little olive oil.

GIVE UP GLUTEN

Gluten is the protein found in wheat and other grains such as oats, rye and barley. It’s a sticky protein, hence breads are quite dense in texture. It’s precisely for this reason that many people have a problem digesting gluten. And if you think about it, you’ve probably consumed lots of gluten over the Christmas period! Canapes, stuffing, cakes, pastries, Christmas pudding, bread, sausage rolls … the list goes on!

Why not start the new year being gluten-free for a couple of weeks to help relieve any bloating? It may sound difficult but there are so many alternatives available now in the supermarkets. Plus, you’ll naturally reduce your carbohydrate intake and increase your protein, which is always going to be beneficial for weight management.

Just be wary of gluten-free biscuits or cakes; they’re generally very high in sugar which is certainly not going to help any new year detox!

So try these top tips to feel more energised and beat the bloat this year, and get ready for an even healthier 2018!

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Five nutritious food swaps for a healthier Christmas

A table laid with christmas foods including turkey, cake, cheese and decorations

Christmas is not always known for being the healthiest time of year! However, wouldn’t it be marvellous to still enjoy wonderful festive food but with a healthy twist this Christmas?

Clinical Nutritionist, Suzie Sawyer, shares her five top healthy Christmas food swaps!

SMALLER--4 Suzie Blog pic

SWAP PIGS IN BLANKETS FOR PARMA HAM AND ASPARAGUS

Serve up some delicious Parma ham wrapped around asparagus instead of pigs in blankets this Christmas. Whilst those traditional pigs are often one of the mainstays of the Christmas table, there’s around 800 calories per 100 grams , so there’s nothing wrong with changing it up a little and enjoying a choice.

Asparagus is packed with energising B vitamins, plus it feeds the friendly bacteria that naturally live within the digestive tract and this is going to really help reduce digestive upsets which are common over the Christmas period. Treat yourself to some traditional Italian Parma ham and wrap a slice around three asparagus sprigs. Gently roast in the oven and sprinkle with a little fresh Parmesan cheese and those little pigs will be a dim and distant memory!

SWAP SMOKED SALMON AND SCRAMBLED EGGS FOR AVOCADO AND POACHED EGG

Whilst scrambled eggs and smoked salmon is a delicious Christmas morning breakfast, it can often sit heavily on the stomach. Farmed smoked salmon is especially high in fat and scrambled eggs are frequently made with milk and butter which can be more difficult to digest.

The other downside to eating any smoked foods is that they contain a high salt content; salt is added to reduce the moisture content of the food and help prolong shelf life, prior to smoking. For people who have to be mindful of high blood pressure, eating foods loaded with salt will often exacerbate the problem.

Much easier on the digestion would be a lightly poached egg on wholemeal toast with some avocado slices. Avocado is a wonderfully healthy fruit, packed with skin-loving vitamin E to help you glow through the festive season.

SWAP BRANDY BUTTER FOR CRÈME FRAICHE

Crème fraiche will provide a wonderful partnership to your Christmas pudding! As we know, traditional Christmas pudding is notoriously packed with sugar, and whilst the day could never be the same without its presence, brandy butter is equally sweet and very high in fat.

The combined taste of sweet Christmas pudding with the slightly sour crème fraiche is a real treat. In terms of fat content you’ll be more than halving your intake with crème fraiche as there’s nearly 200 calories per serving in brandy butter as opposed to around only 50 in crème fraiche.

SWAP CANAPES FOR CRUDITIES

Christmas lunch or dinner often kicks off with some canapes. However, goat’s cheese tarts, mini quiches, vol-au-vents and smoked salmon blinis might look lovely but they can negatively impact on the digestive system. And that’s before we even consider any impact on the waistline.

You can still enjoy some pre-dinner drinks and nibbles but why not serve up a plateful of fresh crudités with hummus or guacamole? A plateful of chopped vegetables including celery (great for reducing blood pressure), cucumber (excellent internal cleanser), carrots (packed with vitamin A for the immune system) and peppers (loaded with vitamin C) is colourful and appetising and even better with some delicious dips.

Moreover, you’ll be better able to enjoy the main event without feeling bloated before you start!

SWAP YULE LOG FOR LEMON POLENTA CAKE

Whilst the chocolate yule log might look very Christmassy, it is a very heavy dessert. We also tend to eat a lot more gluten-containing foods over Christmas which can really contribute to bloating and flatulence, and the traditional yule log is one of these you could do without.

A lemon polenta cake still looks great on the table, can be dusted with icing sugar to look like snow, and is gluten-free. Plus, you can even make it dairy-free by substituting the butter for mild olive oil if you like. Even better, lemons provide powerful antioxidants so you’ll be supporting your immune system at the same time.

So why not try these easy swaps and make this your healthiest Christmas yet without losing any of the pleasures!

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Shout about sprouts! Everything you need to know about nutritious Brussels sprouts.

Plate with traditional Christmas dinner and a delicious turkey on the table in the background

Brussels sprouts are synonymous with Christmas and will always appear on any traditional Christmas menu. However, just like marmite, people love them or hate them even though they deliver wonderful nutritional benefits.

Clinical Nutritionist Suzie Sawyer stands up for sprouts and also suggests alternatives if you really can’t stomach these little green vegetables!

SMALLER--4 Suzie Blog pic

Did you know that Britons eat more Brussels Sprouts than any other country in Europe, even though they originated from Brussels? The area dedicated to sprout fields in the UK is equivalent to around 3,240 football pitches so there must be more lovers than haters? So what’s so good about sprouts?

PACKED FULL OF NUTRITION

Brussels sprouts are bursting with nutrients and actually contain more vitamin C per 100 grams than oranges.  Plus they’re a great source of folate – a B vitamin which helps energy production and red blood cell production – and vitamin A for a strong immune system. Even better, they’re full of fibre which keeps the bowels in smooth working order.  The only down side is that they can produce unpleasant wind, but this can be reduced by cooking them as quickly as possible in fast-boiling water in an uncovered saucepan.

One often-forgotten nutritional fact about sprouts is that they are actually rich in protein; they provide around 4 grams of protein per cup, which is high for a vegetable.

THEY CAN HELP THE BODY DETOX

It may not be the time of year we traditionally think about detoxing, but why not give a helping hand to the body and help it to cope better with any excesses of the festive season?

Brussels sprouts are high in glucosinolates which help activate other detoxing compounds, plus they are high in sulphur, which is key in activating the liver’s natural detoxification systems.

WHY THE BITTER TASTE AND SMELL?

It has been proven that some people have a gene that can make certain foods, most specifically sprouts, taste bitter, which may explain why some people dislike them.  However, this bitter taste can be overcome by adding other flavours. It is often over-cooking sprouts that produces the rather unpleasant smell that can pervade the whole house so why not try steaming them instead?

DELICIOUS SPROUT DISHES

There are so many positives to eating Brussels sprouts regularly in the diet, so how can you make them even more appealing?  Sprouts work really well with bacon, onions and raisins which will compliment your Christmas meal perfectly.  They can also be sautéed with garlic and shallots.

Plus, if you want to be sure of avoiding sprout cooking smells, then why not roast them in the oven for about 15 minutes with chorizo, garlic, paprika and a little olive oil.  If you wanted to make them into more of a main meal, then why not add some small sausages?

STILL NOT CONVINCED?

If Brussels sprouts really don’t ‘float your boat’ then there’s plenty of healthy alternatives.  They come from a family of vegetables called the brassicas which are very well-known for their health benefits.  They’re also better known as cruciferous vegetables and are all super-foods in their own right.

Think kale, cauliflower, collard greens, cabbage, broccoli and turnips.  You can put broccoli in stir fries, kale into pasta dishes and cauliflower can be mashed or made into the all-round favourite cauliflower cheese. Try sautéing some greens with garlic and add turnips to a slow-cooked stew.

Whatever you decide, always try to select sprouts that are fresh and bright green with tightly-packed leaves and no patches of yellow.  Make this Christmas the year to start loving sprouts!

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